RULES FOR THE CONSTRUCTION OF PERSONAL, PLACE AND CORPORATE NAMES
RULES FOR THE CONSTRUCTION OF CORPORATE NAMES
4.1 Corporate bodies and corporate names
4.2 General rules for the construction of a corporate name
4.3 Variant names
4.4 Additions and qualifiers
4.6 Conferences, congresses, exhibitions, eisteddfods and festivals
4.7 Joint committees etc.
4.9 Subordinate bodies
4.10 Appendix 1 Criteria for recognition of a new corporate body
4.11 Appendix 2 Alphabetical list of complete examples
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4.1 CORPORATE BODIES AND CORPORATE NAMES
4.1.1 Definition of a corporate body
4.1.1A A corporate body can be defined as an organisation or group of persons that is identified by a particular name and that acts, or may act, as an entity. 1 In addition, a corporate body will usually possess clearly defined powers and mandate, have a clearly identified level of responsibility and sufficient functional autonomy to allow it decision-making power for the business falling within its competence. However, it may be constituted in a more informal manner, and exist as an entity by virtue of its recognition as such by its members.
Typical examples of corporate bodies are societies, business firms, non-profit enterprises, trade unions, governments and government agencies, embassies and consulates, courts of law, regiments and religious bodies and foundations. Ships, 2 exhibitions and conferences, 3 intellectual and artistic groups and office-holders 4 should be regarded as corporate bodies also.
4.1.1B Some corporate bodies are subordinate to other corporate bodies. See 4.9 for guidance on the treatment of subordinate bodies.
4.1.2 Contents of a corporate name
4.1.2A A corporate name may contain some or all of the following components:
4.1.2B A name should contain as many of these components as are required for precise identification of the corporate body being named. However, it is likely that what is required to achieve precise identification of the body will vary according to the context in which the name is being used. For example, the name of the jurisdiction or territorial authority component may be redundant in a local context, and even hinder rather than facilitate retrieval by researchers, but be essential for wider use. Archivists may need to consider exclusion/inclusion of the component according to the circumstances of use.
4.1.3 Additional information
A notes area, while not forming part of the name, can be useful for background information which will enable recognition and application of that name. This information could include, for example, the covering dates of use of the name, details of the nature or functions of the body and details of the hierarchy not reflected in the authorised name.
Much of this information would be included in authority records created in accordance with the International Standard Archival Authority Record for Corporate bodies, Persons and Families, (ISAAR (CPF)), (1996).
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4.2 GENERAL RULES FOR THE FORMATION OF A CORPORATE NAME
4.2.1 General rule for choice of a corporate name
4.2.1A The general Rule for the choice of corporate name is to determine the name by which it is commonly identified from items issued by the body, including its records, or from reference sources, which can include the name used in legislation or registration/certification 5 or in books and articles written about the body.
4.2.1B Application of the general rule
This general Rule should be interpreted in particular circumstances as set out in the Rules below. These Rules should be applied to both government and non-government corporate bodies unless otherwise specified, 6 and to all levels of corporate body (i.e. whether subordinate or not).
Corporate names should be written in natural language order and not inverted so as to place a keyword at the start. The exception to this is if the body itself does not use natural language order, in which case the general Rule of following the body's own usage should prevail. (Note that no examples of such a practice have been found; the Rule caters for the possibility only.)
It is recommended that words of substance in the name should have the initial letter capitalised.
The punctuation referred to throughout these Rules is based on that of AACR2 and has been included here because it is considered to be useful as guidance. It is not mandatory and repositories are free to choose their own punctuation for local use.
4.2.3 Changes of name
4.2.3A When a corporate body changes its name, establish a new authorised form for the new name. Cross-refer, using see also (xx) cross-references, between the different names used for a corporate body. 7
4.2.3B Do not include in corporate names the names of predecessors or successors; see also (xx) cross-references can provide the necessary links.
4.2.3C Changes of style such as the omission of apostrophes and full stops are not regarded as changes of name.
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4.3 VARIANT NAMES
4.3.1 General rule for variant names
4.3.1A If variant forms of name are found in items issued by the body (including its records) and the other reference sources described at 4.2.1, use the one which seems to be the legal or formal name unless there is an overriding reason not to do so (e.g. a well-established use of a conventional name, see 4.3.4). If more than one name is used formally, select the one which seems to be predominant. Cross-refer (using a see (x) cross-reference) from non-preferred forms of name to the preferred form of name. Use also as appropriate the special Rules for particular circumstances, set out at 4.3.2-10.
4.3.1B Variant names are only those forms of name which are in use at the same time. If the variation occurs over time, i.e. there is a change from one name to another, then the Rule concerning changes of name at 4.2.3 applies instead.
4.3.2 Special rules for corporate bodies associated with a jurisdiction 10
4.3.2A If a corporate body is associated with a national or local jurisdiction and the name of that jurisdiction is not implicit in the body’s title, or is required to distinguish that body from another with a similar name, include the name of the jurisdiction in the authorised name. The jurisdiction component is inserted as the first part of the name. (See also 4.1.2B concerning local use of jurisdiction names.)
4.3.2B Select the jurisdiction at the level most appropriate to the corporate body. This may be a national level, or a lower level such as state, regional or local.
4.3.2C If the jurisdiction is at the national level then the name of the country should be used (see 4.3.4B concerning names of countries).
4.3.2D In the case of the British Isles, 14 the national level should be the higher level contemporary with the body, e.g. Great Britain and Ireland, unless the corporate body is associated solely with only one of the constituent countries of that higher level, e.g. Scotland, Ireland, in which case the name of that constituent country should be used. 15
4.3.2E If the jurisdiction is at a state, regional or local level then the name of the county, city, province, state etc. should be used. For jurisdictions outside the British Isles, the name of the country should be added as a qualifier.
4.3.3 Special rules for language
4.3.3A If the name appears in different languages, use the form in the official language of the body (but see also 4.3.3B).
If there is more than one official language and one of them is English, use the English form. Refer from forms in other languages to the preferred form if wished.
4.3.3B Alternative rule
Use a form of name in a language suitable to the users of the repository’s finding aids if the body’s name is in a language unfamiliar to those users. Refer to this form from the form in another language if it is possible that some users might seek to use that other form.
4.3.3C Special rule for Welsh corporate bodies
The Welsh Language Acts of 1967 and 1993 provide for the English and Welsh languages to be treated on a basis of equality. Parallel corporate names in English and Welsh may be created for Welsh corporate bodies, with separate authority records linked by see also cross-references. 20
4.3.4 Special rule for conventional names
4.3.4A In exceptional circumstances, if there is well-established usage of a name other than the legal or formal name, for example it is used by the body as its name on formal documents or heading its publications, then that conventional name may be used. Refer to that name from the official name.
4.3.4B This Rule applies also to governments, where the conventional name, which is commonly the geographical name of the area, may be used.
4.3.5 Special rule for initials and acronyms
If the body is legally or formally known by initials, use that form of name. The full form of the name or a designation should be added as a qualifier if needed for identification of the body (see 4.4 for details on when additions are needed). Cross-refer from the full form of name.
4.3.6 Special rule for the use of forenames or their abbreviations
If the name by which a body is known consists of a surname preceded by one or more forenames, select that form of name without inverting the surname and forenames. Similarly, if the forenames are abbreviated to initials, use the initials. Refer to this form from the inverted form of name if this is likely to be sought.
4.3.7 Special rule for companies
If the registered name of a company contains a term, or an abbreviation or contraction of that term, which indicates its status, such as its incorporation or type of incorporation, include this in the name. 23
4.3.8 Special rules for King’s/Queen’s
4.3.8A If the name of a corporate body includes the words ‘King’s’ or ‘Queen’s’, and hence would be subject to change when a male monarch was succeeded by a female monarch, and vice versa, the preferred option is to create parallel corporate names and authority records for the two forms on the lines suggested at 4.3.3C, and to cross-refer between them. 24
4.3.8B Alternative rule
If a repository cannot accommodate parallel names the corporate name should not be changed when a male monarch is succeeded by a female monarch and vice versa. Use the masculine form for the name and refer to it from the feminine form. 25
4.3.9 Special rules for religious foundations 26
4.3.9A Most religious foundations (abbeys, priories, etc.) are commonly known by the place where they were situated and should be identified by that place name together with the appropriate term for their status. 27 Refer to the preferred form of name from other forms if wished. It is useful to include details of the order and dedication in the notes area.
4.3.9B If there was more than one foundation of the same status in places of the same name they should be distinguished by use of the order, the dedication or dates of existence as an addition. If the foundation was a friary then the order should be added as a qualifier. If the place name is one which occurs in more than one county then the county can be added to avoid ambiguity.
4.3.9C Some foundations spent their early years on the move, settling successively at several different places before removing to the place with which they are commonly associated. Choose the name of that place (which is usually the last as well as the longest settled) and use the form of name as at 4.3.9A with cross-references from the other places.
Exceptionally a peripatetic foundation is commonly known not by the main place of settlement but by the dedication with a place name as an addition. Use that name and cross-refer from the other places of settlement.
4.3.9D If the status (e.g. abbey, priory) of a religious foundation is not known then the more general terms of monastery and nunnery should be used.
4.3.9E Cells or dependencies should be treated as subordinate bodies which are entered directly under their own name (see 4.9 for the relevant Rule). They should be identified by the place in which they were situated with the name of the parent house as an addition.
4.3.10 Special rule for ships
The name of a ship is usually preceded by an abbreviation such as HMS (His/Her Majesty’s Ship) or SS (Steam Ship). Include this abbreviation in the name of the corporate body, 34 with place names or dates as additions when necessary (see 4.4).
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4.4 ADDITIONS AND QUALIFIERS
4.4.1 General rule
4.4.1A Additions to the name of a corporate body should be made in the circumstances set out at 4.4.2-3. They should follow the name. 36
4.4.1B The three types of addition are:
They are most commonly used singly but more than one may be used in conjunction if necessary. 38
4.4.2 Names not conveying the idea of a corporate body
If the name alone does not convey the idea of the corporate body, and something more is needed to indicate its nature and purpose or its status, add a general designation.
4.4.3 Two or more bodies with the same or similar names
4.4.3A If two or more bodies have the same or similar names and are likely to be confused, they should be distinguished by the addition of a place name (but see also 4.3.2), a date range or a general designation, as appropriate.
4.4.3B If a place name is being used as a qualifier, the latest form of place name in use in the lifetime of the body should be selected.
4.4.3C If a corporate body moves from one place to another, and a place name is being used as a qualifier, use the last place at which it has been located. 41 Cross-refer from the form of name using earlier place names if users are likely to recognise the previous name or names.
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4.5.1 Initial articles
Omit an initial article unless the sense of the body disappears without the article.
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4.6 CONFERENCES, CONGRESSES, EXHIBITIONS, EISTEDDFODS AND FESTIVALS
4.6.1 General rule
Conferences, congresses, exhibitions, eisteddfods and festivals which are considered to be corporate bodies should be entered under the name of the conference followed, where applicable, by any or all of the additions set out at 4.6.4-6. 42
Omit from the name element an indication of a conference’s or exhibition’s number, frequency or year; this is treated as additional information, see 4.6.3-6.
4.6.3 Additions: general rule
Additions should follow the name. 43 More than one addition should be used if necessary; if so, the preferred order is number then date then place.
4.6.4 Additions: number
If the conference or congress is one of a series of numbered meetings of the same name, add the ordinal number in its English form. If the exhibition or festival is part of a numbered series, add the number in the same way. If the numbering is irregular do not add it.
4.6.5 Additions: date
If the heading is for a single meeting or exhibition, add the year (or, if it stretched over more than one, the years) in which it took place.
4.6.6 Additions: place
Add the name of the place or the particular institution in which the conference or exhibition was held if this is necessary to identify it.
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4.7 JOINT COMMITTEES ETC.
If a body has been constituted as a joint body by two or more parent organisations, enter it directly under its own name. Omit the names of the parent bodies when they occur within or at the end of the name or if the joint unit is distinctive without them. Refer to it from the parent organisations and explain the relationship in the notes area.
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Enter an office-holder under the title of the office. 47 If the office is associated with a jurisdiction then the jurisdiction element should be included as specified at 4.3.2. 48 If the office is associated with an institution other than a jurisdiction then the name of that institution should be used as provided at 4.9.
The name of the office could be qualified by the names of individual office-holders, together with the dates they held office. 49
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4.9 SUBORDINATE BODIES
4.9.1 Subordinate bodies entered directly
Enter a subordinate body directly under its own name if it has an identity separate from its parent institution. The exception to this is if a jurisdiction name is required (see 4.9.2A) or if it falls into one of the categories set out at 4.9.2B. Refer to the name of the subordinate body entered directly from its name in the form of a sub-heading of the parent body.
4.9.2 Subordinate bodies entered as sub-headings
4.9.2A Enter a subordinate body as a sub-heading of its parent body if a jurisdiction name is required. See 4.3.2 for the Rule and examples.
4.9.2B Enter a subordinate body as a sub-heading of its parent body if it belongs to one of the categories set out below.
A name which requires the addition of the name of the parent body for its identification.
A name containing a term which usually implies that the body is subordinate to another, such as Division, Branch, Section, Committee.
A name containing a term that indicates a geographic or other sub-division of a parent body.
A name that does not convey the idea of a corporate body.
4.9.2C Enter a subordinate body as a sub-heading of the lowest level in the hierarchy which is entered under its own name; do not include intermediate levels of the hierarchy unless they are required for precise identification of the body. Refer from other levels where necessary. Include details of the full hierarchy in the notes area.
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4.10 Appendix 1 Criteria for recognition of a new corporate body
The Rules above have dealt with corporate names rather than corporate bodies. One issue covered (at 4.2.3) is what to do when a body changes its name. Related to that issue is one slightly outside the scope of these Rules but sufficiently relevant for it to be addressed, namely when is a corporate body a new corporate body. When one corporate body ceases to exist and is replaced by another has considerable implications for archivists seeking to define a fonds when analysing and describing their holdings. What follows deals with some common types of change. It does not address the issue of whether a fonds should be defined on a maximalist or minimalist basis. 54
4.10.2 A change of name but no change in function or status
A corporate body which changes its name but nothing else may be regarded as being the same corporate body. (As stated in the Rules above, a new authorised name should, however, be created.)
An example of this type of change is the company Guest, Keen & Nettlefold Ltd which became GKN Ltd and later GKN plc.
4.10.3 A major change of function or status but no change of name
There are strong arguments for regarding a body in such cases as being a new corporate body and documenting it accordingly. If it is decided that the change warrants recognition as a new corporate body then a new name is required also, the two bodies being distinguished by the addition of an appropriate qualifier.
An example is Highams Ltd. This name was used successively for the company as a private company between 1900 and 1947, a public company with shares quoted on the stock exchange between 1947 and the 1970, and a private company again after 1983 (during the intervening years it was Highams plc). These changes in status are more than cosmetic.
4.10.4 A change of name accompanied by changes in its nature or status
A corporate body should be regarded as a new body if, in addition to a change of name, one of the following circumstances applies.
4.10.4A When there has been a major change in its function or scope of activity.
Two examples of this are the Department of Trade and Industry’s inheritance of some but not all of the functions of the Board of Trade in 1970, and the London Missionary Society’s succession by the Council for World Mission.
4.10.4B When there have been territorial or boundary changes, usually associated with amalgamation or splitting of former entities so that they can be said to have ceased to exist.
Three examples of this are Rutland (which was abolished as an administrative unit in 1974), Greater London as an administrative area under the Greater London Council (abolished in 1985) and Yugoslavia (of which only a rump has remained since 1991).
4.10.4C When there has been legislation which leads to re-constitution of the corporate body.
Examples of this are the replacement of local government boards by urban or rural district councils in 1894 and the reconstitution of the Medical Research Committee as the Medical Research Council in 1920.
4.10.4D In the case of a body such as a trade union or friendly society, there is a requirement to de-register or de-certify the old body and register or certify the new body. Trade Union law requires trade unions to avoid duplicate names.
Examples of this are the Bookbinders Consolidated Union which became the Bookbinders and Machine Rulers Consolidated Union in 1872, and the Bank Officers’ Guild which became the National Union of Bank Employees in 1946.
4.10.4E In the case of a business where there has been a take-over and the business ceases to trade under its own name and ceases to exist as a legal entity, it ceases to exist as a corporate body.
An example of this is Standard Motor Company’s take-over by Leyland.
4.10.4F Where a business has been taken over but continues to trade under its own name, and becomes a subordinate body, i.e. a change in status is involved, it should remain as a corporate body, and its change in status and its superior body (or, if it is sold on, its sequence of superior bodies) should be indicated in the authority record.
Examples of this are the bookshops Waterstones and Dillons which were taken over by W H Smith and Thorn EMI respectively but continue to trade under their own names.
4.10.4G Where the business has been taken over but continues to trade under a different name, i.e. there is change of status and a change of name, it should be regarded as a new body.
An example of this is Hainsworth Laycock Ltd of Grangemouth, which was taken over in 1955 by T W Broadbent Ltd, electrical engineers of Huddersfield. It continued under its own name until 1964, when it became T W B Scottish Installations Ltd. In 1973 it was renamed T W Broadbent (Scotland) Ltd. According to these guidelines, the changes in 1955 would not lead to the body being regarded as a new corporate body (see 4.10.4F) but the changes of 1964 and 1973 are sufficient for that to happen (see 4.10.4G).
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4.11 Appendix 2 Alphabetical list of complete examples
In the text of the Rules some examples are truncated so that they illustrate particular points more clearly. The following list shows all the examples used in the Corporate Names Section of the Rules in their completed form, with reference back to the Rule at which they appear. As punctuation is non-prescriptive and may follow local conventions it is not shown. For examples showing how AACR2 punctuation would be applied see footnotes throughout the text. Cross-references are not included in the list.
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A body which has been intended but not actually brought into existence,
such as a railway company planned but not formally constituted, may be
regarded as a corporate body for the purposes of creating an authority
record. It is likely that such a body would be the subject rather than
the creator of archives.
2 This encompasses the vessel and its complement.
3 See 4.6 for an explanation of conferences and exhibitions as corporate bodies.
Office-holders are regarded as corporate bodies if entered under the
title of the office but not if entered under the personal name of the
In general the records or publications of a body will bear the formal
name (which in the case of bodies such as companies and trade unions is
the legal or registered name) and this will be the authorised name; see
also 4.3.1 and 4.3.4.
This contrasts with Anglo-American Cataloguing Rules (AACR2) which
deals separately with government bodies and religious bodies.
Archives, Personal Papers and Manuscripts (APPM) recommends that, when
selecting access points in these circumstances, the most recent name
represented in the records should be used as a main access point, with
other names used as added access points. This is not necessarily
appropriate for indexing multiple provenance records, i.e. those
created consecutively by a sequence of bodies over a period of time.
The alternative practice of using all of the sequence of bodies without
differentiating between main and added entries, which is recognised in
the Canadian Rules for Archival Description (s21), should be regarded
This change occurred in 1921, shortly before the regiment amalgamated
with the 3rd Dragoon Guards to form the 3rd Carabiniers. Note that
unlike AACR2 the names of regiments are not inverted but given in
natural language order.
In some instances a change of name is accompanied by other changes to
the status, nature or functions of the corporate body sufficient to
warrant it being regarded as a new corporate body. To take Gold Coast
and Ghana as an example: the colony (Gold Coast) became an independent
state (Ghana) in 1957. Further examples of such changes are given in
The term ‘jurisdiction’ is used in this context for an area in which
executive, legislative or judicial powers are exercised. It can be
national or local in nature.
In this and subsequent examples names are expressed using a vertical
line between the components. This is not the way in which such names
would be expected to appear when used by a repository; suggestions for
expressing such names appear in footnotes. In this case AACR2
recommends use of a full stop between the two components of the name.
In these two examples the name of the jurisdiction is already part of
the name so the jurisdiction component need not be inserted.
13 Note that the language used in this name accords with the rule at 4.3.3A.
In the light of discrepancies between AACR2 and British Library and
Library of Congress practice, the following should be used for the
constituent parts of the British Isles. Until 1536 use the following
separate designations: England; Wales; Scotland; Ireland. From 1536 to
1707 use: England and Wales; Scotland; Ireland. From 1707 to 1800 use
the individual countries if appropriate to the corporate body or, for
the higher national level, Great Britain [for England, Wales and
Scotland]; Ireland. From 1801 to 1922 the single form Great Britain and
Ireland should be used for the higher national level, while from 1922
it should be Great Britain and Northern Ireland.
15 AACR2 does not provide for use of a lower level national jurisdiction.
16 These examples illustrate some of the jurisdication names that could be used.
In this example the country has been added as a qualifier for the lower
level jurisdiction. AACR2 is not entirely consistent in this respect.
AACR2 punctuation would have this as ‘Ontario (Canada). High Court of
This and the next two examples are presented here in their
transliterated Russian or Japanese form; their English form is given at
4.3.3B. Note that the first example is a national body which has only
the name of the country as an addition; the second is not a national
body, according to the Library of Congress (from which the examples
were taken) and hence the local place name, or city, is included as an
19 All but the first example are the English form of name of the examples at 4.3.3A, as explained at fn 18.
AACR2 makes no provision for parallel names but they are recommended in
International Standard Archival Authority Record (ISAAR(CPF)).
The conventional name is used here because it is used by the body
itself in conducting legal transactions. In contrast, although the
Royal Commission on Historical Manuscripts (used as an example at
4.3.1) is generally referred to as the Historical Manuscripts
Commission, its publications use the formal name and hence that formal
name should be the authorised name.
All but the BHS (British Home Stores) example would have see
cross-references from the non-preferred form of name. BHS/British Home
Stores is more complicated because the firm has used both forms of name
at different times and hence the change of name rule set out at 4.2.3
would apply, with see also cross-references.
23 AACR2 does not require inclusion of such terms, but business archivists consider it essential.
24 AACR2 makes no provision for this circumstances; the rule builds on the parallel names concept referred to at 4.3.3C.
This option is suggested on the grounds of practicality. The use of the
male rather than female option for the preferred form of name is
because the majority of monarchs to date have been male; any offence it
causes is regretted.
Abbeys, priories and dependent cells should be regarded as corporate
bodies in their own right rather than as subordinate bodies of the
order with which they are associated. Authoritative lists of early
religious foundations in England and Wales, Scotland and Ireland are
provided in D. Knowles and R.N. Hadcock, Medieval Religious Houses,
England and Wales, 2nd edition (Harlow, 1971), J.B. Cowan and D.E.
Easson, Medieval Religious Houses, Scotland, with an appendix on the
Houses in the Isle of Man, 2nd edition (London, 1976) and A. Gwynn and
R.N. Hadcock, Medieval Religious Houses: Ireland, 2nd edition (Dublin,
1988). The rules in this sub-section develop aspects not covered in
Note that if a change in status leads to a change in name, for example
from priory to abbey, then the change of name rule at 4.2.3 applies. An
example is Bath Abbey, which became a Cathedral Priory in 1090.
28 Charterhouse is the generic term for Carthusian houses.
The earliest abbey at Jarrow, founded in 681, was a double house called
Wearmouth-Jarrow, forming a single confraternity in two locations under
In this case covering dates are used for absolute clarity because of
the location of Byland Abbey - a rather peripatetic foundation referred
to at 4.3.9C - at Calder 1135-1138.
Like many religious foundations this abbey spent its early years moving
from one settlement to another before settling at Byland. In contrast
to the foundation in the next example it is commonly known by its place
name and the rule reflects that practice.
This religious community was founded in Lindisfarne c 635, left there
in 875 and moved to several other places before settling in Durham
where it was replaced by a Benedictine community in 1083. It is
difficult to determine what its name should be, and the name component
reflects current practice.
In this case there is insufficient evidence to determine the
foundation’s status; the covering dates are used as an addition to
prevent confusion with other foundations at Jarrow.
34 Inclusion of the prefix departs from AACR2.
AACR2 uses the designation ‘ship’ but this is too general for the
purposes of repositories holding maritime material and so more specific
terms are suggested.
36 AACR2 recommends that additions and qualifiers be enclosed in round brackets.
Note that the place name should be at the level appropriate to
identification of the body, which may be a town or city, county or
country. Add the country if the place is not in the British Isles.
AACR2 recommends that multiple additions should be separated by a space
colon space. See fn 46 for a corporate name with additions formatted in
It is common for the names of ships to be re-used. The ship in the
first of these examples was renamed ‘Anne Royal’ in 1608, that in the
second was renamed ‘Pegasus’ in 1934 and that in the last was
previously named ‘Irresistible’. Dates are necessary to distinguish
between those which share a designation as well as a name.
The first example uses St Petersburg instead of Leningrad, as the
latest name for the city. It also illustrates the approach to language
set out at 4.3.3A, namely use the official language of the body. The
second example (for a different institution) uses Russia instead of
USSR (Union of Soviet Socialist Republics); it follows the alternative
rule for language at 4.3.3B, namely use a language familiar to users.
Fn 18 explains the examples in more detail.
41 AACR2 does not cover this circumstance.
Conferences and congresses are considered to be corporate bodies
because a group of people coming together for a particular purpose
creates an entity. Exhibitions and festivals are considered to be
corporate bodies if they are recurring, such as the Royal Academy
Summer Exhibition, the Venice Biennale or the Edinburgh Festival. How
they are organised is not considered the determining factor although it
may affect whether they are entered subordinately or not. A corporate
name entry would also be generated for the body organising the
conference or exhibition if there were any records of the conference or
AACR2 recommends that additions should be enclosed in round brackets
and, if more than one is used, should be separated by a space colon
space. See fn 46 for an example of this.
44 This is an example of a numbered exhibition.
45 Note that eisteddfods should have parallel names in Welsh and English under rule 4.3.3C.
46 AACR2 would have this as ‘International Congress on Archives (12th : 1992 : Montreal, Canada)’.
Office-holders are regarded as corporate bodies if entered under the
name of the office rather than under the personal name of an
office-holder (for which see 2.1.1). There are occasions when papers of
an office holder will need to be linked to the office rather than the
person, for example material submitted to the Lord Chamberlain for
censorship and associated correspondence. In such circumstances a
corporate name should be constructed.
48 See fn 14 for the suggested jurisdiction names to be used for the British Isles.
49 An example, taken from AACR2, is ‘Catholic Church. Diocese of Winchester. Bishop (1367-1404 : William, of Wykeham)’.
Note that this example requires also the name of the jurisdiction, i.e.
three levels of hierarchy are involved. It is used here to illustrate
the necessity of the name of the parent body for identification.
51 This and the next example require also the jurisdiction name as explained in fn 50.
In this example the full hierarchy is needed because the School of
Education cannot be entered directly without its parent body. The
Education Research Unit cannot be entered directly under the University
of Bristol because there could be another Unit of the same name
attached to another Department.
In this case the intermediate body, the Adjutant General’s Department,
can be omitted but a cross-reference as shown should be inserted.
This issue has been addressed in recent years by Australian and
Canadian archivists. In particular see The Archival Fonds: from Theory
to Practice, edited by Terry Eastwood (Bureau of Canadian Archivists,
1992) and essays by Chris Hurley and Sue McKemmish in The Records
Continuum, edited by Sue McKemmish and Michael Piggott (Ancora Press in
Association with Australian Archives, 1994).
This and similar names are given in the form in which they would appear
in a national context, i.e. the name of the national or central
jurisdiction associated with the body is included as part of the name
element or as the jurisdiction element. See 4.1.2B and 4.3.2 concerning
the use of the jurisdiction in corporate names.
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